Stimulant drugs


It is paradoxical that  are judged to be safe when recommended to children and potentially harmful if they were to be taken by adults. This problem was even highlighted by the authors of clinical management guidelines based on reliable data operating within the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in Great Britain.What are the causes of ADHD?Based on the results of numerous studies, it can be concluded that ADHD is a disorder that runs in families and is hereditary in nature.

Genetic causes are therefore a significant risk factor for its development. Environmental factors have additional etiological importance, but rather in interaction with genetic factors than as the main causes (they are dominant only occasionally).The risk of ADHD in first-degree relatives of a patient with diagnosed disorder is about 4-10 times higher than in the general population and amounts to 20-50%.

The results of genetic studies involving children suffering from ADHD indicate many genes that are most likely important in the etiology of this disorder; this applies, inter alia, to variablewithin the dopamine receptor genes (DRD4 and DRD5), the dopamine transporter (DAT1), the dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) gene, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), the serotonergic receptor (HTR1B) and the SNAP 25 protein results. for adults with ADHD are similar.

Additional conditions necessary for the diagnosis of ADHD are:the severity of the above symptoms at a level disproportionate to the level of development of a given person,the onset of symptoms in childhood,functional impairment due to the presence of the above-mentioned symptoms.3 ADHD subtypes have been described, which differ in the dominant symptom complex:with a predominance of attention disorders,with a predominance of hyperactivity and impulsiveness,mixed subtype.What is the specificity of the clinical picture of ADHD in adults?The main symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention deficit in adults may appear slightly differently than in children.


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