Environmental factors associated with the development of ADHD


Are prenatal factors, such as exposure during pregnancy to alcohol, nicotine, psychoactive substances, high blood pressure and stress of the mother, preterm labor and low birth weight.The results of numerous studies in the field of neurophysiology and neuroimaging suggest that in both children and adults, one of the main etiological elements is brain dysfunction (for example in the front striatal area).

In addition, numerous MRI studies show reproducible changes in various brain structures in people with ADHD compared to those in the healthy population. Abnormalities in the former were also shown in studies with the use of positron emission tomography.What are the symptoms of ADHD?Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is defined as a set of symptoms including:lack of attention,excessive activity,impulsiveness.

In addition, in most European countries, ADHD has been diagnosed relatively recently, which suggests that there are many adults suffering from this disorder who previously had no chance of an appropriate diagnosis, and thus in their case it was not possible to implement adequate therapy.One of the reasons why the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in adults is too low is the change in the symptoms of ADHD as patients age.

Younger age groups are dominated by hyperactivity and impulsivity, and for adults, less clear-cut symptoms such as inner restlessness, inattention, disorganization and executive function impairment. Moreover, the diagnosis of ADHD in this age group may be difficult due to the presence of comorbidities of other mental disorders, which specialists treat as the main or only diagnosis. This phenomenon is exacerbated by incomplete awareness of ADHD in adults.



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